Transactional leadership (maintenance) Transformational leadership (transforms)
Head down Head up
Focus on practical Focus on possible
Coaches/directs  Inspires
Doing the job right Doing the right job
Harnesses/directs energy Creates energy
Turns ideas into reality Has vision/ideas
Performance Potential
Pragmatism Inspiration
Sets objectives Questions assumptions
Fixes problems Creates problems

Successful leaders

Leaders need to

Managers vs leaders

Smart organisations value both

Managers Leaders
Order and consistency Coping with change
Manage complexity by planning and budgeting, allocating resources Set a direction
  • Challenging
Organisation and staffing Aligning people
  • Communicating with lots of people
  • Checking understanding
  • Looking for motivational issues
  • Looking to satisfy basic human needs
  • Empowering
Controlling and problem solving, monitoring results vs plan Motivating and inspiring
  • networking
Personal qualities
  • persistence
  • analytical
  • tolerance
  • impersonal attitude to goals
  • view work as an enabling process
  • work with people, avoid solitary activity
  • self-worth enhanced by perpetuating / strengthening
Personal qualities
  • shapers, proactive not reactive
  • seeks risks
  • leaders tend to evoke strong feelings in people
  • feelings occur separately from environment
  • can confront and tolerate aggressive interchange

Leaders usually have an opportunity to try out their leadership skills in 20’s and 30’s and then learn by their successes and mistakes.

Recognition of potential leaders when young and apply appropriate development strategies for that individual.

Transformational leadership

Evokes fundamental change in basic political and cultural systems of the organisation

Organisational dynamics of change

  1. Trigger events indicate a change is needed
  2. The change unleashes mixed feelings: when a needed change is perceived by the organisational leaders, the dominant group in the organisation must experience dissatisfaction with the status quo.


Felt need
Perceived need for change by key leaders
Resistant forces
Create a vision
Mobilisation of commitment
Institutionalisation of change


  1. Quick-fix leadership leads to decline
  2. Revitalisation requires transformational leadership
    • Creation of a vision
    • Mobilisation of commitment
    • Institutionalisation of change

Individual dynamics of change

Disengagement – disidentification – disenchantment – disorientation
Replace past glories with future opportunities
Neutral zone (transition state)
Death & rebirth – disintegration & reintegration – perspectives on endings & new beginnings
“Time out”
New beginnings (revitalisation)
Find inner realignment and release new energy
New scripts not replay of old ones, future opportunities
Have moved through neutral zone
Learning from the past