Key is process - "trajectory" - curriculum is limiting

  1. Define student's stated position by questioning/reflecting
  2. Align with student's views and share problems
  3. Explore area together to to show that student:
    • did already have knowledge on this topic
    • can be released from the stranglehold of his own assumptions
    • develops the thirst for new knowledge

New age skills:

  1. Creative insight (asking the right questions)
  2. Sensitivity (being able to bind a team with shared motivation
  3. to achieve high goals)
  4. Vision (having a clear imagination of how things might be)
  5. Versatility (anticipating change and being comfortable with novelty)
  6. Focus (orchestrating resources towards a desired goal)
  7. Patience (having a sense of long term as well as the short)

It's circumstances, not arguments, which change values

Lesson goals

Switch from "judgemental mode" to "awareness mode" with Awareness Raising Questions (ARQ's)


How the inner apprentice learns:

Unfamiliar circumstances generate a need for MUTATIVE INFORMATION. This need results in a disquieting state of COGNITIVE DISSONANCE, which is felt subjectively, and which is also indicated by behavioural MINIMAL CUES, detected by an attuned aand perceptive teacher. At the pivotal POINT OF KAIROS, the learner's Inner Apprentice attemptts to reduce the cognitive dissonance either by:
(a) discounting the mutative information
or (helped by AWARENESS-RAISING QUESTIONING and under conditions of SAFE INSECURITY) by:
(b) restructuring the knowledge store, including its beliefs and values ie: learning.

Repertoire-enhancing learning produces a sense of COGNITIVE RESONANCE, and in extreme cases a powerful EPIPHANY, which also have learner-specific minimal cues. The legacy of cognitive resonance is an educational EXPANSION SPACE, hierarchically organised, into which the learner grows and develops as the TRAJECTORY OF APRENTICESHIP unfolds.

Some symptoms of cognitive dissonance, indicating learning opportunities:

         Insecurity        Nervousness       Fidgeting
         Restlessness      Awkwardness       Self-conscoussness
         Embarrassment     Hesitancy         Evasiveness
         Guardedness       Defensiveness     Agression
         Hostility         Brusqueness       Irritation
         Surprise          Curiosity         Day-dreaming
         Inappropriate humour or laughter
         Loss of concentration
         Avoidance behaviour - reduced eye-contact, physical backing-off
         Sudden increase or decrease in energy level
         Unexpected rush of emotion

Minimal cues:


Neo-socratic style:

                                 Superficial level
                                         |
                  Inner apprentice establishes knowledge deficit
                                         |
                            Clarifying and questionning
                                         |
                        Defines deficits of knowledge base
                           |                       |
                           |                       |
                 State of Karios         Aporia (confessed state of
                (passion to know)           helpless ignorance)
                           |
                           |
                 Agreed agenda and definitions
                 Questions not statements
                 Minimal cues
                 Safe insecurity

Awareness-raising questions:

When awareness-centred teaching flags:


Mutative information:

For maximum effectiveness this needs to be:


Human needs (Maslow):


The inner curriculum:


Hallmarks of excellence:


Source: Roger Neighbour The Inner Apprentice