"Support needs challenge"

Supportive climate

Defensive climate

Non-judgemental presentation of perceptions, feelings, events; genuine requests for information; descriptively reflecting opinions and direct observations of visible behaviour back to the other person; avoiding terms like ‘good’ or ‘bad’
Passing judgement; blaming, criticizing or praising; questioning motives or standards
Problem orientation
Collaboration; mutually defining and solving problems rather than telling someone what to do
Doing something to other people; telling them what to do or how to feel or think
Spontaneity (flexibility)
Freedom from ‘hidden agendas’ or other deceptions; straightforwardness; the ability to respond to events and people with flexibility. Spontaneity should not be construed to mean lack of organization or absence of plans and structure
Strategy (hidden agenda)
Manipulating through the use of tricks or hidden plans; hiding intentions
Empathy (involvement)
Willingness to become involved with others; identifying with, respecting, accepting, understanding others
Neutrality (indifference)
Indifference, detachment, aloofness; viewing the other person as an object of study

Willingness to participate with the other person, to mutually define and solve problems; de-emphasis of differences in power or ability. Equality does not deny differences in knowledge or ability, rather it recognizes the contribution and worth of each individual

Failure to recognize the worth of the other person, arousing feelings of inadequacy in the other; communicating that one is better than the other
Provisionalism (tentativeness)
Tentativeness; open-mindedness; willingness to explore alternative points of view or plans of action
Certainty (dogmatism)
Dogmatism; resisting consideration of alternatives; emphasis on proving a point rather than solving the problem